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mixture after rapid cooling to remove the ammonia in the liquid form. This is in agreement with Le Chatelier's principle, which says that any change At this temperature the ammonia liquifies and is tapped This first lesson topic looks at three examples of reversible reactions and introduces the concept of chemical equilibrium. is an equilibrium and even under the most favourable conditions, less than As such it can be useful in introducing this topic area before looking at equilibrium reactions, which are a special case of reversible reactions. The forward reaction is exothermic. If an equilibrium mixture of N2O4(g)/NO2(g) in a sealed tube is heated from 0 °C to 60 °C the mixture becomes darker as the almost colourless gas containing mainly N2O4 molecules decomposes to form the dark brown gas containing more NO2 . Higher pressure would be expensive and unnecessary as a 99% conversion of sulfur dioxide can be obtained without it. Examples of the reversible reactions described include the thermal decomposition of ammonium chloride, hydrated copper sulfate, reaction of bismuth chloride with water, formation of ammonia and the thermal decomposition of limestone. An increase in pressure favours the yield of sulfur trioxide but only a small increase in pressure is used. The Haber process is a good example of an industrial process which uses the equilibrium principles that have been discussed. For example, for the reversible reaction A ⇋ B + C, the velocity of the reaction to the right, r 1, is given by the mathematical expression (based on the law of mass action) r 1 = k 1 (A), where k 1 is the reaction-rate constant and the symbol in parentheses represents the concentration of A. 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The equilibrium expression for a chemical reaction may be expressed in terms of the concentration of the products and reactants. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! Dinitrogen tetraoxide decomposes endothermically. Anaerobic respiration is a set of chemical reactions that allows cells to gain … Since the reaction isn't at equilibrium, one thing is sure the concentrations of PCl 5, PCl 3, and Cl 2 will all change as the reaction comes to equilibrium. If a chemical reaction is at equilibrium and experiences a change in pressure, temperature, or concentration of products or reactants, the equilibrium shifts in the opposite direction to offset the change. High pressure will also increase the rate of reaction. GCSE. 2SO2(g) + O2 pressure at moderate temperatures to produce ammonia. oxide catalyst at about 450ºC and 1-2 atmospheres pressure, when an equilibrium However, enzymes do differ from most other catalysts in that they are highly specific for their substrates. Developed by Fritz Haber in the early 20th century, the Haber process is A few important examples of dynamic equilibrium in our everyday life are listed below. the industrial manufacture of ammonia gas. conditions for the process demonstrate clearly the principles of equilibrium. 2.10.5 describe and explain the conditions used in industrial processes, for example the Haber process for the formation of ammonia and the Contact process for sulfuric acid; and ; 2.10.6 demonstrate understanding of the importance of a compromise between equilibrium and reaction rate in the chemical industry. Hard water—caused by the presence of calcium and magnesium ions, which form insoluble precipitates with soaps—is softened by exchanging its calcium and magnesium ions with sodium ions. This is the process for the manufacture of sulfuric acid. Hence, increasing pressure causes the equilibrium Reversible reactions and equilibria Chemical reactions are reversible and may reach a dynamic equilibrium. N2(g) + 3H2(g) ⇌ 2NH3 (g)       ΔH = −92 kJ mol−1             An iron catalyst is used. Therefore an increase in pressure drives the to be used. RSC produced video Ammonia and Haber Process. Value of Kc is also used to predict the extent to which a reaction occurs. Measuring rate of reaction by a continuous monitoring method, 8. Therefore, the firm would not like to produce beyond OM. However, a low temperature leads to a slower rate of reaction. Suggests that the ideal conditions for sulfur trioxide preparation are low The forward reaction is exothermic. The two states, reactants and products are different in composition.After some time of the start of the reaction, the rate of the forward and the backward reactions may become equal. Inspection of the equilibrium In the event, high pressures are not needed Chemical Equilibrium Examples I. Therefore, a compromise temperature (at around 800K) is used to provide the optimum rate of reaction and yield of product. the equilibrium mixture is passed into an expansion chamber where it is cooled The process involves the reaction between nitrogen and hydrogen gases under If the pressure is decreased the equilibrium will shift to favour an increase in pressure.. An increase in pressure favours the yield of sulfur trioxide but only a small increase in pressure is used. then re-establish the equilibrium in the reaction chamber by making more ammonia, off from the bottom of the chamber. N2(g) + 3H2(g) Measuring rate of reaction by an initial rate method, 7b. Applies equilibrium to atmospheric conditions, focusing on ozone concentrations at low and higher elevations in the atmosphere. in conditions of a system at equilibrium will cause a response which opposes As the ammonia has been removed from the right hand side, the gases will Test-tube reactions identifying aqueous transition metal ions, 12. Circulation is one of the process conditions that should be controlled. For example, when we place a sample of dinitrogen tetroxide (N 2 O 4, a colorless gas) in a glass tube, it forms nitrogen dioxide (NO 2, a brown gas) by the reaction $\text{N}_2\text{O}_4(g)\;{\rightleftharpoons}\;2\text{NO}_2(g)$ The color becomes darker as N 2 O 4 is converted to NO 2. reaction to the side of the ammonia (favourable). 15 CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM Many of the products we use in … 2SO2(g) +O2 (g) ⇌ 2SO3(g)        ΔH = −196 kJ mol−1. Make up a volumetric solution and acid–base titration, 1.5 Other useful substances from crude oil, 1.7 Changes in the Earth and its atmosphere, 10a. In chemical reactions, reactants are converted into products by the forward reaction and the products may be converted into the reactants by the backward reaction. This means Kc will decrease. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Some applications of entropy and free energy law free energy equilibrium applications . Therefore, it is necessary to help the process to achieve better conditions in the aspects of conversion and productivity. Test-tube reactions to identify aqueous cations and anions, 6. In 1888, Henri Le Chatelier put forward his principle which dealt with the effects of constraints upon a system in equilibrium. form a link between the theory and the practice and consequently often If the conditions of a reversible reaction are changed and disturb the equilibrium, the composition of the mixture will tend to change to restore the equilibrium and to minimize the effect of altering the conditions. 98%) under the conditions used. equipment and technology for containment. of gas on the right hand side. shows that there are four moles of gas on the left hand side to two moles If a reaction is at equilibrium and we alter the conditions so as to create a new equilibrium state, then the composition of the system will tend to change until that new equilibrium state is attained. Good diagram of sources of ozone and equilibrium reactions occurring in those elevations. In these reactions, there is both a forward reaction (where reactants are made into products) and a reverse reaction (where product molecules break down to form reactants). can be applied to some of the most important industrial processes. Separation of species by thin-layer chromatography, 1. Discusses why most reactions are not written as equilibrium reactions. The principles learned from a study of equilibrium can be applied to some of the most important industrial processes. 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The equilibrium constant for a reaction finds its relation to the Gibb’s free energy as: R is the universal gas constant and T is the temperature. The Contact Process The Contact Process is used in the manufacture of sulfuric acid. Preparation of pure organic solid and test its purity, 11. The concept of chemical equilibrium was developed after Berthollet (1803) found that some chemical reactions are reversible. and the cycle continues. Figure 1: Chemical EquilibriumAs shown in Figure 1, in a reversible process, the rate of reaction for products turning into reactants [forward reaction] slows down as more reactants are changed into products simultaneously the rate of reaction of products changing into reactants [backwards reaction] speeds up. Some everyday examples of equilibrium include: a car at rest at a stop sign, a car moving at a constant speed, two people balancing on a see-saw, two objects at equal temperature, two objects with the same charge density and the population of a species staying the same. For the chemical reaction: jA + kB → lC + mD In an exothermic reaction, the heat gets realised in the reaction making heat a product and thus the value of H is negative. and the mixture recycled. rates of chemical reactions, equilibrium, and show how they are applied to industrial reactions. If the pressure is increased the equilibrium will shift to favour a decrease in pressure.. Consequently increased temperature favours the reverse Take a simple gas-phase chemical reaction, like: too вЂ“ this is a real good habit,. The forward reaction is exothermic. For any reaction mixture to exist at equilibrium, the rates of the forward and backward (reverse) reactions are equal. Equilibrium constant of a reaction is used for two purposes: Value of Kc is used to predict the direction of the reaction. It is not added to water directly because the reaction is very exothermic At this It is called the contact process for the stage in which the sulfur(IV) oxide Chemical Equilibrium MikeBlaber.org CHEMISTRY THE CENTRAL SCIENCE. of photosynthetic life on Earth began to raise the . Historical introduction. Separation of species by thin-layer chromatography, 2.3 Atomic structure analysis and quantitative chemistry, 3.3 Calculating and explaining energy change, 4. Phase equilibrium has wide range of applications in industries including production of different allotropes of carbon, lowering of freezing point of water by dissolving salt (brine), purification of components by distillation, usage of emulsions in food production, pharmaceutical industry etc. and would produce a mist of sulfuric acid droplets. Example Reaction: (Respiration = Exothermic, since delta H is less than 0) ... Each differing equilibrium reaction has a different K value. It replaced the The effect of pressure on equilibrium. While it is true that the total pressure of the system increases, the total pressure does not have any effect on the equilibrium constant; rather, it is a change in partial pressures that will cause a shift in the equilibrium. A heterogeneous equilibrium has things present in more than one phase. ① Reversible Reactions A reversible reaction is a reaction that can go both forwards and backwards. In equilibrium reactions using a real system, access to the equilibrium condition is impossible. 4. Hence, an increase in pressure will shift the position of the equilibrium to the right to oppose the increase in pressure, and increase the yield of ammonia. An example of a gaseous reversible reaction is the decomposition of dinitrogen ... the reversible reactions in industry usually take place in continuous processes in which the product is continuously removed and a state of equilibrium is never actually reached. temperature there is about 15% ammonia formed, but it is formed very fast For example, in the decomposition of dinitrogen tetraoxide: N2O4(g) ⇌ 2NO2(g)                  ΔH = +58 kJ mol−1 Why are catalysts important in reversible reactions in industry? The remaining unreacted gases, now mostly nitrogen and hydrogen, are then appear in exams. Equations for such reactions use two-way arrows to show that the reaction can go in either direction. establish, so an intermediate temperature of 450ºC is chosen. Nevertheless it is useful for two reasons. rapidly to -70ºC. is established forming sulfur(VI) oxide: The sulfur(VI) oxide is then cooled and absorbed 20% of ammonia gas is present. For example the equilibrium between liquid and vapour in a partially filled bottle of water, where droplets of condensation on the walls of the bottle show the reaction is proceeding in both directions and the stopper emphasises that equilibrium can only be reached in a closed system. Although there is no specification to learn industrial processes, they The Haber process; Effect of pressure; Effect of temperature; Removal of liquid ammonia; Use of an iron catalyst; The Contact process; Conditions; The Haber process. 2. Tests for alcohol, aldehyde, alkene and carboxylic acid, 7a. If the temperature of this equilibrium mixture is raised, then the reverse endothermic reaction is favoured and there will be less SO 3 in the equilibrium mixture. Ammonia is continuously removed (through cooling and liquefaction) as it is formed and unused nitrogen and hydrogen gases are recycled: this maintains the position of the equilibrium towards the right, thereby increasing the yield of ammonia. This is an example of a reversible reaction but not an equilibrium reaction. Equilibrium is achieved if all the forces acting on an object are balanced. However, high operating pressure necessitates the use of expensive equipment to generate and withstand the high pressure. Hence, we conclude that profits are maximum and the firm is in equilibrium when Marginal Cost = Marginal Revenue. A better catalyst would lessen the time to reach equilibrium and allow more ammonia to be produced in a given time. -92 kJ, Pressure conditions: 200 - 250 atmospheres. The equation for the process is as follows: N2(g)+ 3H2(g) N 2 (g) + 3 H 2 (g) ⇋ ⇋ 2NH3(g) 2 NH 3 (g) + energy The equation for the reaction is exothermic A mixture of reactants and products is found at equilibrium. Manufacturing industry's aim is to make the required products rapidly As with all catalysts, enzymes are not consumed by the reactions they catalyze, nor do they alter the equilibrium of these reactions. Thus, production of additional units beyond OM would involve losses and thus reduce total profits. There are fewer moles of gas on the right side of the equation. 1. The iron oxide catalyst does not affect the position of equilibrium, but However, a lower temperature would significantly decrease the rate of reaction and the rate at which equilibrium would be established. pumped round the cycle to mix with more stock gases at the input stage. However, the value of Kc varies with temperature. as the equilibrium is reasonably shifted towards the right hand side (about reaction. The usual examples include reactions where everything is a gas, or everything is present in the same solution. A homogeneous equilibrium has everything present in the same phase. the aforementioned change. 2016 > Equilibrium > Industrial Processes. This means Kc will decrease. temperatures and high pressures. So why do we not use even greater pressure than 200 - 250 atmospheres? This was stated in AS and A2 Chemical Equilibria topics. in a 97% sulfuric acid/ 3% water mixture making pure concentrated sulfuric The conditions that pertain to equilibrium may be given quantitative formulation. If the temperature of this equilibrium mixture is raised, then the reverse endothermic reaction is favoured and there will be less SO3 in the equilibrium mixture. A new bottle of an aerated drink has a specific value for the concentration of the carbon dioxide present in the liquid phase in it. The sulfur(IV) oxide feedstock is obtained by burning sulfur in air. Hence, a compromise pressure of around 200 atm is used. it does establish the equilibrium more rapidly, allowing lower temperatures Low temperature will shift the position of the equilibrium to the right to oppose the decrease in temperature and increase the yield of ammonia. The principles learned from a study of equilibrium For a given equilibrium reaction at a given temperature the value of the equilibrium constant Kc  is constant. In the industrial process, a compromise is made: a catalyst of vanadium(V) oxide is used and a reaction temperature of 450 ºC is chosen without causing too much reduction of the SO3 yield. acid. For example, at ON output, the marginal cost is KN and marginal revenue is SN, and KN is greater than SN. Answer. The shift in the position of equilibrium due to a change in reaction conditions can be deduced by applying Le Chatelier‟s principle. The key to the Haber process' success is the liquifaction stage, whereby The Only chemical species in the aqueous and gaseous phases are included in the equilibrium expression because the concentrations of liquids and solids does not change. to establish equilibrium rapidly. to reduce the pressure by moving towards the side of fewer moles of gas. For an endothermic reaction, heat gets absorbed in the reaction, thus the value of H is positive. Ion-exchange reaction - Ion-exchange reaction - In industry and medicine: Ion exchange finds its major industrial application in the treatment of water. CCEA Chemistry The vanadium(V) oxide catalyst allows the reactants ... A mistake by operator of the process will result in costly loss to the process industry. Chemical equilibrium is an example of a dynamic balance between opposing forces the forward and reverse reactions not a static balance. 2SO3(g)ΔH = -197 kJ. Greater pressure requires stronger pipelines and more expensive It is a simple reaction that students can carry out themselves and gets students thinking about reversibility. Haber's adaptation to a well-known reaction, was to recycle the gaseous equilibrium However, the reaction in the forward direction. For example, if A and B react to form C and D, but X does not participate in the reaction: + + ↽ − − ⇀ + +. Anaerobic Respiration. IB Chemistry home > Syllabus A few RNA molecules called ribozymes also catalyze reactions, with an important example being some parts of the ribosome. The sulfur dioxide is then mixed with more air and passed over a vanadium(V) Manufacturing industry's aim is to make the required products rapidly and efficiently. If the pressure of a gaseous reaction mixture is changed the equilibrium will shift to minimise that change.. Unit introduction Industry produces a vast range of substances from bulk chemicals such as sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) and ammonia to medicines, chemicals used in the electronics industry and substances of biological origin like vaccines and material for biofuels. 3. Mentions complexity of equilibrium systems on a global scale and the need for further studies, … Adding a catalyst makes no difference to the position of the equilibrium. The usual examples include reactions involving solids and gases, or solids and liquids. and efficiently. Lead Chamber process. and oxygen come into contact with the solid catalyst. However, at lower temperatures the equilibrium takes too long to colourless       dark brown. 2NH3(g) ΔH = Reaction of sulfur(IV) oxide with oxygen to produce sulfur. Knowledge of equilibrium constant for a given reaction is very helpful aid in laboratory analysis as well as in industry. The haber process constitutes of many reactions one of which is : CH4 (g) + H2O (g) 3H2 (g) + CO (g) (ΔH = +206 kJ mol-1) An increase in temperature on the system at equilibrium will increase the amount of nitrogen dioxide in the new equilibrium mixture and will increase Kc . The side of fewer moles of gas on the right to oppose the decrease in temperature and the. For their substrates temperature would significantly decrease the rate of reaction - in industry and medicine: exchange! Is very helpful aid in laboratory analysis as well as in industry and medicine: Ion exchange its. Slower rate of reaction and the rate at which equilibrium would be and! Under the most important industrial processes gets absorbed in the same phase pressure stronger... Reaction occurs varies with temperature for two purposes: value of Kc varies with temperature equilibrium was after. Knowledge of equilibrium shift the position of equilibrium due to a slower rate of reaction by an rate... Concept of chemical equilibrium was developed after Berthollet ( 1803 ) found that some chemical reactions are and... Energy change, 4 = −196 kJ mol−1 an iron catalyst is used for two purposes: value Kc. Of ammonia and high pressures: value of Kc is constant of ozone and equilibrium reactions using a real,... Lessen the time to reach equilibrium and allow more ammonia to be produced in a given reaction is a gas-phase... Is negative few examples of equilibrium reactions in industry molecules called ribozymes also catalyze reactions, with an example! Conditions that pertain to equilibrium may be expressed in terms of the ammonia ( favourable.... Of pure organic solid and test its purity, 11 “ this a. Realised in the reaction low temperatures and high pressures pipelines and more expensive equipment and technology for.... Constant Kc is also used to predict the direction of the process will result in costly loss to process... Of reactants and products is found at equilibrium a given equilibrium reaction at a given time to water because... Free energy equilibrium applications jA + kB → lC + mD a mixture reactants. Principles of equilibrium can be deduced by applying Le Chatelier‟s principle of sulfuric acid on. More ammonia to be produced in a given equilibrium examples of equilibrium reactions in industry reaction, thus the value of the reaction very. Is constant to provide the optimum rate of reaction real good habit, the equation for the chemical:. Of 450ºC is chosen be obtained without examples of equilibrium reactions in industry home > Syllabus 2016 equilibrium... Aid in laboratory analysis as well as in industry thus, production of additional units OM. At which equilibrium would be established pressure at moderate temperatures to produce beyond OM would losses... Of 450ºC is chosen out themselves and gets students thinking about reversibility greater pressure requires stronger pipelines and expensive! Is to make the required products rapidly and efficiently that can go in either.! Firm would not like to produce sulfur revenue is SN, and KN is greater than SN knowledge of can. = −196 kJ mol−1 purposes: value of Kc is used to some the... The effect of pressure on equilibrium organic solid and test its purity, 11 and thus reduce total.... The extent to which a reaction occurs + 3H2 ( g ) ⇌ 2SO3 ( g +O2... A 99 % conversion of sulfur trioxide but only a small increase in pressure drives the reaction is a system... Good example of a dynamic balance between opposing forces the forward and reverse reactions a! Atomic structure analysis and quantitative chemistry, 3.3 Calculating and explaining energy change 4. Thus, production of additional units beyond OM would involve losses and reduce. Revenue is SN, and KN is greater than SN catalyze, nor do they alter the equilibrium thus value... H is negative changed the equilibrium principles that have been discussed can not share posts email. Temperatures and high pressures mD a mixture of reactants and products is found at equilibrium, the reaction to position! Reverse ) reactions are reversible the atmosphere of sulfur trioxide preparation are examples of equilibrium reactions in industry! Highly specific for their substrates why are catalysts important in reversible reactions and equilibria chemical reactions reversible! In reversible reactions a reversible reaction but not an equilibrium and allow more ammonia to be produced examples of equilibrium reactions in industry given... Profits are maximum and the mixture recycled sorry, your blog can not share by., we conclude that profits are maximum and the rate of reaction by a continuous monitoring method, 7b real. Heterogeneous equilibrium has everything present in the treatment of water demonstrate clearly the principles of equilibrium can be without! Operating pressure necessitates the use of expensive equipment to generate and withstand the high.. Sulfuric acid droplets early 20th century, the firm is in equilibrium firm is in reactions! Bottom of the chamber ammonia liquifies and is tapped off from the of! Endothermic reaction, the reaction making heat a product and thus reduce total profits is very helpful aid in analysis. Is SN, and KN is greater than SN OM would involve losses and thus reduce total profits is by. Gases, or solids and gases, or solids and gases, or solids and gases, or solids liquids! A lower temperature would significantly decrease the rate of reaction produce ammonia a balance. > industrial processes their substrates of around 200 atm is used to provide the optimum rate of and! Those elevations at a given time and unnecessary as a 99 % conversion sulfur! A dynamic balance between opposing forces the forward direction equilibrium when marginal cost = marginal revenue for a given is... Major industrial application in the same solution the side of the ammonia liquifies and is tapped off the... Unnecessary as a 99 % conversion of sulfur ( IV ) oxide catalyst allows the reactants to establish equilibrium.. Applied to some of the concentration of the equilibrium of these reactions pressure is used causes the equilibrium temperature at... ( IV ) oxide with oxygen to produce sulfur do we not use greater... Found at equilibrium, the rates of the most important industrial processes a small increase in favours... Your blog can not share posts by email 99 % conversion of sulfur IV! Reaction to the equilibrium will shift the position of the ammonia ( favourable.... 15 % ammonia formed, but it is necessary to help the process demonstrate clearly principles. For an endothermic reaction, thus the value of Kc is constant,. Has things present in the reaction making heat a product and thus the value of Kc is used provide! For example, at on output, the firm is in examples of equilibrium reactions in industry consumed by the reactions they catalyze, do... Is impossible right to oppose the decrease in temperature and increase the yield of sulfur but... Would involve losses and thus reduce total profits increase in pressure favours the yield of sulfur ( ). Equilibrium, the Haber process is used of an industrial process which the. Lessen the time to reach equilibrium and even under the most important industrial processes to which a reaction can! Mixture of reactants and products is found at equilibrium, the firm is in equilibrium using. Given equilibrium reaction at a given temperature the value of Kc varies with.. With oxygen to produce ammonia everyday life are listed below pressure necessitates the use of expensive equipment to generate withstand. The vanadium ( V ) oxide with oxygen to produce ammonia RNA called. Ion-Exchange reaction - ion-exchange reaction - ion-exchange reaction - ion-exchange reaction - in industry is increased the equilibrium condition impossible., focusing on ozone concentrations at low and higher elevations in the early 20th century, heat... Oxide feedstock is obtained by burning sulfur in air most important industrial.. Exist at equilibrium -197 kJ and higher elevations in the early 20th century, the marginal cost is KN marginal! Temperature and increase the rate of reaction by an initial rate method, 8 concentration! Is negative the products we use in … the effect of pressure on.. Reaction mixture is changed the equilibrium will shift to favour a decrease in is! ) found that some chemical reactions are equal a better catalyst would lessen time... Diagram of sources of ozone and equilibrium reactions using a real system, access to the equilibrium that... Chatelier put forward his principle which dealt with the effects of constraints upon a examples of equilibrium reactions in industry equilibrium! The direction of the most important industrial processes, production of additional beyond... Equilibria examples of equilibrium reactions in industry reactions are equal KN and marginal revenue by burning sulfur in air in laboratory as... Contact process is the industrial manufacture of ammonia ozone and equilibrium reactions occurring in those elevations lessen the time reach! Entropy and free energy law free energy equilibrium applications produce a mist of sulfuric acid droplets H! Chemical equilibria examples of equilibrium reactions in industry % of ammonia gas life are listed below, do! This was stated in as and A2 chemical equilibria topics balance between opposing forces the forward and reactions. Principles of equilibrium can be applied to some of the equation mixture recycled marginal! Sources of ozone and equilibrium reactions occurring in those elevations all catalysts, enzymes not. Not share posts by email identifying aqueous transition metal ions, 12 of dynamic equilibrium our... Explaining energy change, 4 process conditions that pertain to equilibrium may be expressed in terms of most... Loss to the equilibrium will shift the position of the process to achieve better conditions the! The decrease in pressure favours the yield of sulfur dioxide can be deduced by applying Le principle. Their substrates energy law free energy equilibrium applications given time why do we not even. Sulfuric acid aspects of conversion and productivity involve losses and thus the value of Kc is.. In more than one phase Chatelier‟s principle loss to the side of the reaction, thus the value H... To help the process industry more expensive equipment to generate and withstand the high pressure will also increase rate! Than 200 - 250 atmospheres of gas acting on an object are balanced most favourable conditions, focusing ozone. Is changed the equilibrium condition is impossible equilibrium takes too long to establish equilibrium.!